History of science - Wikipedia History of science - Wikipedia

Uses of isotopes in medicine and radiochemical dating, liquid scintillation counting

After in Middle Age it was imported in Syria to produce with special techniques the " Damascus steel " by the year For example, that land floats on water and that earthquakes are caused by the agitation of the water upon which the land floats, rather than the god Poseidon.

This was greatly expanded on by his pupil Democritus and later Epicurus. Theophrastus wrote some of the earliest descriptions of plants and animals, establishing the first taxonomy and looking at minerals in terms of their properties such as hardness.

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The ancient people who are considered the first scientists may have thought of themselves as natural philosophers, as practitioners of a skilled profession for example, physiciansor as followers of a religious tradition for example, temple healers.

One of the oldest surviving fragments of Euclid's Elements, found at Oxyrhynchus and dated to c. Herophilos — BC was the first to base his conclusions on dissection of the human body and to describe the nervous system.

Nor should it be supposed that by some trick of translation the extracts have been given an air of modernity. In particular, Madhava of Sangamagrama is considered the "founder of mathematical analysis ". History of science and technology in the Indian subcontinent Ancient India was an early leader in metallurgyas evidenced by the wrought-iron Pillar of Delhi.

The important legacy of this period included substantial advances in factual knowledge, especially in anatomyzoologybotanymineralogygeographymathematics and astronomy ; an awareness of the importance of certain scientific problems, especially those related to the problem of change and its causes; and a recognition of the methodological importance of applying mathematics to natural phenomena and of undertaking empirical research.

Some Uses of isotopes in medicine and radiochemical dating the earliest linguistic activities can be found in Iron Age India 1st millennium BC with the analysis of Sanskrit for the purpose of the correct recitation and interpretation of Vedic texts.

He made countless observations of nature, especially the habits and attributes of plants and animals on Lesbosclassified more than animal species, and dissected at least What Archimedes did was to sort out the theoretical implications of this practical knowledge and present the resulting body of knowledge as a logically coherent system.

Subsequently, Plato and Aristotle produced the first systematic discussions of natural philosophy, which did much to shape later investigations of nature.

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Inherent in his analytic approach are the concepts of the phonemethe morpheme and the root. They designed a ruler—the Mohenjo-daro ruler—whose unit of length approximately 1. It was known from Pliny the Elder as ferrum indicum. Indian Wootz steel was held in high regard in Roman Empire, was often considered to be the best.

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The people of this civilization made bricks whose dimensions were in the proportion 4: He also recognises that other minerals have characteristic crystal shapes, but in one example, confuses the crystal habit with the work of lapidaries.

The first textual mention of astronomical concepts comes from the Vedasreligious literature of India.

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Pliny the Elder produced what is one of the largest encyclopedias of the natural world in 77 AD, and must be regarded as the rightful successor to Theophrastus. The astronomer Aristarchus of Samos was the first known person to propose a heliocentric model of the solar system, while the geographer Eratosthenes accurately calculated the circumference of the Earth.

Neither Armenian dating sites nor inquiry began with the Ancient Greeks, but the Socratic method did, along with the idea of Formsgreat advances in geometrylogicand the natural sciences. The 13 chapters of the second part cover the nature of the sphere, as well as significant astronomical and trigonometric calculations based on it.

Their development of deductive reasoning was of particular importance and usefulness to later scientific inquiry. Nilakantha Somayaji 's astronomical treatise the Tantrasangraha similar in nature to the Tychonic system proposed by Tycho Brahe had been the most accurate astronomical model until the time of Johannes Kepler in the 17th century.

Arabic translations of the two astronomers' texts were soon available in the Islamic worldintroducing what would become Arabic numerals to the Islamic world by the 9th century.