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One of the most lasting effects of the Crusades in this region was the contact between the crusaders mainly French and the Maronites. Lebanon district, and the Druze gaining control over the Biqa valley. In the approach to World War I, Beirut became a center of various reforming movements, and would send delegates to the Arab Syrian conference and Franco-Syrian conference held in Paris.
The Maronites and the Druze divided Lebanon until the modern era.
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Ottoman control was uncontested during the early modern period, but the Lebanese coast became important for its contacts and trades with the maritime republics of VeniceGenoa other Italian city-states.
Jumblatt declared a rebellion, and between and there were massacres and battles, with the Maronites attempting to gain control of the Mt. Since most of the silk went to Marseillethe French began to have a great impact in the region.
Salim I, whose treasury was depleted by the wars, decided to grant the Lebanese amirs a semiautonomous status in exchange for their acting as "tax farmers". The Province of Lebanon that would be controlled by the Maronites, but the entire area was placed under direct rule of the governor of Damascus, and carefully watched by the Ottoman Empire.
As such the Franks saw them as Roman Catholic brethren.
Inthe prince angered the Ottomans by refusing to allow an army on its way back from the Persian front to winter in the Bekaa. However, as time passed, the Ottomans grew increasingly uncomfortable with the prince's increasing powers and extended relations with Europe.
The Druze began a military campaign that included the burning of villages and massacres, while Maronite irregulars retaliated with attacks of their own. This time, the prince had decided to remain in Lebanon and resist the offensive, but the death of his son Emir Ali Beik in Wadi el-Taym was the beginning of his defeat.
Fakhr-al-Din's ambitions, popularity and unauthorized foreign contacts alarmed the Ottomans who authorized Hafiz Ahmed Pasha, Muhafiz of Damascus, to mount an attack on Lebanon in in order to reduce Fakhr-al-Din's growing power. The major cities on the coast, AcreBeirutand others, were directly administered by Muslim Caliphs.
Unlike most other Christian communities in the region, who swore allegiance to Constantinople or other local patriarchs, the Maronites proclaimed allegiance to the Pope in Rome. Also, days before the Battle of Simqania, Bashir Jumblatt had the chance to kill Bashir II when he was returning from Truly thai dating when he reportedly kissed the Jezzar's feet in order to help him against Jumblatt, but Bashir II reminded him of their friendship and told Jumblatt to "pardon when you can".
Bashir Jumblatt died in Acre at the order of the Jezzar. Frankish nobles occupied areas within present-day Lebanon as part of the southeastern Crusader States. They were confined to a mountainous district, cut off from both the Biqa and Beirut, and faced with the prospect of ever-growing poverty.
Bashir Jumblatt, whose wealth and feudal backers equaled or exceeded Bashir II—and who had increasing support in the Druze community. As a result, the people became increasingly absorbed by Arabic culture.
This and instigation by the powerful Janissary garrison in Damascus led Mustafa Pasha, Governor of Damascus, to launch an attack against him, resulting in the battle at Majdel Anjar where Fakhr-al-Din's forces although outnumbered managed to capture the Pasha and secure the Lebanese prince and his allies a much needed military victory.
Though Islam and the Arabic language were officially dominant under this new regime, the general populace still took time to convert from Christianity and the Syriac language.
The existence of "Fakhr ad-Din I" has been questioned by some scholars. He surrendered to the Ottoman general Jaafar Pasha, whom he knew well, under circumstances that are not clear. Lebanese soldiers, — Rising prosperity and peace[ edit ] Lebanese dress from the late 19th century.
It was an autonomous region of the Ottoman Empire.
In Julywith European intervention threatening, the Turkish government tried to quiet the strife, but Napoleon III of France sent 7, troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The prince eventually gave up the idea, realizing that Europe was more interested in trade with the Ottomans than in taking back the Holy Land.
He later took refuge in Jezzine's grotto, closely followed by Kuchuk Ahmed Pasha. The Druze prince treated all the religions equally and was the one who formed Lebanon.
The French accepted the Druze as having established control and the Maronites were reduced to a semi-autonomous region around Mt Lebanon, without even direct control over Beirut itself. Mamluk rule[ edit ] Muslim control of Lebanon was reestablished in the late 13th century under the Mamluk sultans of Egypt.